Permanent GNSS/GPS Station Planning: Technology, Equipment, Costs


Permanent GNSS/GPS Station Planning: Technology, Equipment, Costs

Permanent GNSS Stations for Geodetic Applications: Equipment, Sites, Costs -- S. Fisher

This is intended as a primer for investigators wishing to implement permanent GNSS stations within their projects. A basic overview of equipment typically employed by UNAVCO investigators and site requirements is included, along with links to additional information contained on this and other web sites. We also include a summary of equipment sources and approximate costs to help with planning and budgeting of permanent stations.

For information or help, e-mail supportunavco.org.

[+] Site Characteristics

Site Foundation

Horizon mask

Site security, ownership and permission

Multipath

Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)

Co locations with other instrumentation

Data quality assessment can be accomplished using the UNAVCO TEQC toolkit

More Information on Site Reconnaissance and Security from the UNAVCO Knowledgebase

[+] Monuments

[+] GNSS Receivers

Tracking Performance

Features and Specifications

Commonly Used Models

[+] Antennas

[+] Antenna Mounts

[+] Radomes

[+] Ancillary Sensors

[+] Power Systems

[+] Enclosures

[+] Data Communications

Definition of Data Communications Requirements for Different Applications

Level 1:
  • 15-30 second sampling, daily to hourly retrieval, many hours latency

  • Precise orbits, reference frame, tectonics, ground based PWV/climate

Level 2:
  • 15-30 second sampling, 10-60 minute retrieval, 10-60 minute latency

  • Ground based PWV/forecasting, ionosphere, space based PWV

Level 3:
  • 10 Hz to 1 second sampling, streamed or small batch retrieval, several minutes latency, guaranteed delivery

  • Seismology (ground shaking and large event detection), tsunami warning, photogrammetry/airborne LIDAR

Level 4:
  • 1 second sampling, streamed retrieval, verified, few seconds latency, late data considered perishable

  • Global or regional differential surveying systems, precision navigation

Special:
  • Broadcast via wireless link or Internet

  • RTK surveying, virtual reference stations, machine guidance and control, structural and geophysical monitoring systems

Data Communications Technologies, Capabilities and Suitability of Use

Service Data Rate and Suitability Approx. Cost (US) Issues or comment
Broadband Internet 128+ kbit/s All levels $60 per month to much more, plus hardware, often access is provided at no cost by host institution Limited availability of services outside of metropolitan areas, “last mile” problem, cost varies greatly by location and service level, some providers may charge by data volume, potential security and firewall issues
Dial-up/PPP <56 kbit/s Level 1 $30-200 per month, $100 hardware Over phone network, limited bandwidth, potentially expensive telecom service fees, line quality can be problematic
Cellular Technologies (CDMA, CDPD, GSM) 10-300 kbit/s Level 1-3 $80 per month, $1,000 hardware for CDMA Limited coverage (especially for data services), change management, network reliability and loading, no priority access for safety of life applications, PPP services in some areas
INMARSAT (BGAN and RBGAN) 144-384 kbit/s Level 1-4 Charged by byte, ~$150 per month for level 1-2, $1,500 hardware New service, limited coverage as service rolls out, RBGAN has latencies, BGAN allows streamed data, but with very expensive per minute fees
IRIDIUM <2.4 kbit/s Level 1-2 $500/month at US government rate, commercial rates prohibitive,  $1,500 hardware Too expensive for all but the most remote locations where no other options exist, limited bandwidth, potentially useful for system health monitoring
Shared VSAT Service 300-500 kbit/sLevel 1-4 $200 per month, plus $1,000 hardware Availability of local providers?  System latencies may prohibit level 4 applications
Dedicated VSAT 64-500 kbit/s Level 1-4 $1,200 per month minimum space segment lease, $3,000 hardware plus hub Licensing, expensive space segment lease, must own and maintain receiving hub, high power consumption, latencies my prohibit level 4 applications
Private Wireless 115 kbit/s -54 mbit/s All levels Special Costs vary substantially, WiFi - $300+, Industrial UHF - $2,000+, no airtime service fees Addresses “last mile” problem, many options exist from WiFI to industrial narrowband, GPS vendors have proprietary solutions for RTK applications

[+] Equipment Costs and Sources for PBO Style Permanent Stations

Item Approximate Cost

P/N or Notes

Source
GNSS Receivers
$3,400 to $12,000
Including antenna, Price depends on model and quantity ordered, PBO standard is Trimble NetRS with Choke Ring antenna See UNAVCO Member Purchase Program for vendor contact
Monuments
.
.
.
Short Drilled Braced Monument
$650
Plus required tools Various. - See UNAVCO SDB monument web page
Deep Drilled Braced Monument
$8,000 to $15,000
Depending on location, specialized drill rig required Various. - See UNAVCO DDB monument web page
Equipment Enclosure w/ DC backpanel
$950
.
Various. - See UNAVCO enclosure web page
Solar DC Power System
.
.
.
2 x ~100 Ahr Gel battery
$250
Alternative - DEKA/MK 12-volt, 100-AH, Gel battery, or Similar
Alternative Solar Products, 27412 Enterprise Circle West, Suite 101 Temecula, CA  92590, Tel. 866-532-8810
2 x 72-80 W Solar Panels
$900
Depending on Location

Alternative Solar Products, 27412 Enterprise Circle West, Suite 101 Temecula, CA  92590, Tel. 866-532-8810

or

ETI Solar – Energy Technologies Inc. 101, 18327-105 Avenue Edmonton, AB, T5S 2K9 Canada, Tel. 780.489.3700

Solar panel mount
$200
Two panel model Precision Design & Machine 6595 Odell Place, Suite F, Boulder, CO 80301, Tel. 303-527-3049, PDMachine@msn.com
SCIGN antenna mount
$550
See information on UNAVCO web site

SCEC University of Southern California 3651 Trousdale Parkway, Suite 169 Los Angeles, California, 90089-0742 John McRaney, Tel. 213-740-5842

or

Precision Design & Machine 6595 Odell Place, Suite F, Boulder, CO 80301 Tel. 303-527-3049

SCIGN radome (tall model)
$220
See information on UNAVCO web site SCEC University of Southern California 3651 Trousdale Parkway, Suite 169 Los Angeles, California, 90089-0742 John McRaney, Tel. 213-740-5842
Cellular Communications
.
.
.
Cellular modem
$795
Proxicast LAN-Cell Mobile Gateway Model 1XMG-401 - TDMA or ModelGPRS-401-GSM Proxicast 312 Sunnyfield Drive, Suite 200 Pittsburgh, PA 15116-1936 Tel. 877-777-7694
Cellular antenna
$50
MaxRad WMLPVDB 800/1900

Hutton Communications 2520 Marsh Lane, Carrollton, TX 75006 Tel. 877-648-8866

Antenna L-Bracket
$15
MaxRad MMK1924 Hutton Communications 2520 Marsh Lane, Carrollton, TX 75006 Tel. 877-648-8866
Antenna base
$50
MaxRad MVP Hutton Communications 2520 Marsh Lane, Carrollton, TX 75006 Tel. 877-648-8866
Communications Service
$60-80/month
Verizon or Cingular depending on coverage area

Verizon Wireless P.O. Box 4001, Inglewood, CA 90313-4001 Tel. 888-466-4646

Cingular Wireless PO Box 30218, Los Angeles, CA 90030-0218 Tel. 800-331-0500

Ethernet Radio
$1100 to 1300
Intuicom EB6 Plus - Price depends on quantity ordered, 2 or more required, includes antennas and cables, used for bridging to cellular or other internet connection See UNAVCO Member Purchase Program for vendor contact
Misc Supplies
.
.
2 x N connector for LMR 400 cable -
$10 ea.
EZ-400-NMH Hutton Communications, 2520 Marsh Lane, Carrollton, TX 75006, Tel. 877-648-8866
N-type 90° connector
$10 ea.
EX400NMH-RA Hutton Communications, 2520 Marsh Lane, Carrollton, TX 75006, Tel. 877-648-8866
Liquitite conduit and connectors
$40
.
Graybar, Inc. 1375 W. 47th Ave., Denver, CO 80211 Tel. 303-458-7770

[+] Data Management and Network Monitoring

 



Article ID: 55
Created On: Mon, Dec 1, 2014 at 9:33 PM
Last Updated On: Mon, Dec 1, 2014 at 9:33 PM
Authored by: Freddy Blume [blume@unavco.org]

Online URL: https://kb.unavco.org/kb/article/permanent-gnss-gps-station-planning-technology-equipment-costs-55.html