Permanent station GPS/GNSS antenna monuments and mounts supported by UNAVCO
Normandeau, J., Meertens, C., Bartel, B.
We compare eight long-term monuments and mounts currently in use in UNAVCO-supported projects. The designs range in height from 0 to 3 meters; substrates into which they are installed include soil, bedrock, and concrete; and costs range from approximately $30 to $15000. The more expensive options may be considered more stable, but in many places outside the US, logistical, economical, and material constraints make installation of deep- and shallow-drilled braced monuments at best difficult and at worst impossible. Simpler single-mast or concrete monuments offer less expensive, more portable installation options with acceptable stability.
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