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UNAVCO Resources: GNSS Station Monumentation

UNAVCO Resources: GNSS Station Monumentation

[ Current as of December 2008 .]

UNAVCO can provide assistance with design, purchasing, and construction of geodetic monumentation to NSF- and NASA-funded science groups. We currently support and recommend the following monument types for permanent, long-term, and campaign GNSS site installations. Click on the links below for more information on each.

Things to consider in choosing a monument type include stability (precision) needed, funds available, time available, site accessibility, site security, substrate, and materials available. For details on site selection and additional information on monumentation in general consider reading: Physical Site Specifications: Geodetic Site Monumentation .

Permanent and Long-term Monument Comparison Table

 
Type
Stability*
Cost**
Install Time
Labor
Substrate
Site Impact
Deep drilled braced
(permanent)

high

$7,500-15,000


2-4 d

3-4
BR, U

high
Shallow drilled braced
(permanent)

high

$800+

1-3 d

2-3
BR

med
Shallow braced (non-drilled)
(permanent)

med-high

$800

1 d

2-3
U

med
Concrete pillar
(permanent)

med

$500-2,000

1-3 d

2-3
BR, U

med
Thermopile
(permanent)

med-high

$6,700-16,000

1-4 d

1
U

high
Polar mast
(permanent, long-term, campaign)

med-high

$500

1 hr

1
BR

low
Shallow foundation mast
(permanent)

med-high

$150

1-2 d

1
BR

low
Stainless steel pin w/ mast
(permanent, long-term, campaign)

med-high

$130

1 hr

1
BR, R

low
5/8" all-thread
(permanent, long-term, campaign)

med-high

$30

1 hr

1
BR, R

low
Tech 2000
(campaign)

low

$600

< 1-2 hr

1
BR

low
Monument Marker
(campaign)

med-high

$15-50

<1 hr

1
BR, R

low
Custom - - - - - -

Install time: Estimated # of days to complete
Labor: Minumum # of people required
Substrate: BR = bedrock, U = unconsolidated, R = rooftop (parapet)
Cost: low = < $200, med = < $1000, high = > $5000 -- Note that these are very rough approximations. The actual cost of a monument installation may vary depending upon site conditions and materials required.
Site (Environmental) Impact:

high : large footprint, construction disturbance potentially lasting several years
med : modest footprint, construction disturbance small, short duration
low : hardly any footprint, construction disturbance negligible

*depends upon the material the monument is set within
**cost for monumentation only; does not include antenna mount or anything above (SCIGN mount, raydome, etc.)

For other monumentation ideas, check out:

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Last modified: Monday, 12-May-2014 00:18:29 UTC